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Psychology research articles on bipolar disorder

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

The epidemiology of DSM-III-R bipolar I disorder in a general population survey. Psychological Medicine, 27, 1079-1089. Van Gent, E. M. & Zwart, F. M. 1991. Psychoeducation of partners of bipolar-manic patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 21, 15-18. Cochran, S. D. 1984. Preventing medical noncompliance in the. Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. There are four basic types of bipolar disorder; all of them involve clear changes in mood, energy, and activity levels. These moods range from periods of extremely “up,” elated, and energized behavior (known as manic episodes) to very sad, “down,” or hopeless periods (known as depressive episodes). Less severe manic periods are known as hypomanic episodes. People with bipolar disorder experience periods of unusually intense emotion, changes in sleep patterns and activity levels, and unusual behaviors.

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HTML - Europe's Journal of Psychology - PsychOpen

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

This is a newer version of an article published in EJOP, Vol.9 Issue 2 2013 under the same title. In the following publication some section. 'Bipolar Disorder' Reviewing Qualitative Research. Introduction. Background; Aims. Method. Journal of Psychology and Mental Health Care (JPMHC) is an international open access journal focus assessment and treatment of mental health problems. The journal publishes almost all types of write-ups like research articles, review, case reports, case study, case series, commentary, letter to the editor, mini review, opinion, short communication, Perspectives, editorials, etc. The journal adheres to rigorous double-blind peer review process. Articles submitted by authors will be assessed by Editors/reviewers of specific proficiency in the same area to authenticate that the published articles are of high quality with accurate and reliable information and data which augment innovative knowledge to the discipline and a real potential to improve the care provided by practitioners to their patients. JPMHC implements the Creative Commons Attribution License to all works published providing instant and permanent access for free to all types of original works. The license grants copyright to the author concerned and makes the articles available for their dissemination. Anyone can use the articles in any constructive way as long as the credit is given to the author and citation to the original source. All published articles will be assigned DOI provided by Cross Ref.

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Psychology Websites

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Based upon a psychological theory of the development of bipolar disorder. depression. However, a review Rehm & Tyndall, 1993 of the unipolar- bipolar distinction argues that bipolar disorder may involve numerous subtypes so that a history of. Although research cited throughout this article involves diagnosis of a. IMPORTANT INFORMATIONBy reading this site, the reader acknowledges their personal responsibility in choices for mental health for themselves and their children, and agrees that the AYCNP or anyone associated with this site, bears no responsibility for one's personal decisions in choices for mental health. Anyone coming off medication should do so gradually rather than abruptly, and under a doctor's supervision. Anyone experiencing thoughts of suicide should seek support. Overcoming Coming Bipolar Disorder Using Self Help Methods was written by the AYCNP, and includes the work of four mental health professionals. It was created to provide both inspiration and practical ways to deal with symptoms of bipolar disorder. It is based on the experiences of those who have succeeded in achieving recovery and remission from Bipolar Disorder I & II, with professional research and references for each of the 33 self-help topics developed. Wellness Recovery Action Plan is authored by Mary Ellen Copeland who provides a personal guide for individuals who are coping with bipolar disorder symptoms. Copeland herself learned from experience how to overcome bipolar disorder.

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Bipolar Disorder | Society of Clinical Psychology

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

In the past decade, interest in and research on pediatric bipolar disorder BD has increased substantially. Prevalence rates of the disorder have doubled in outpatient settings, while twice as many research articles on pediatric BD were published in the past five years as in the prior decade. This review focuses on recent. Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social | Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational | Industrial | Professional items | World psychology | Clinical: Approaches · Group therapy · Techniques · Types of problem · Areas of specialism · Taxonomies · Therapeutic issues · Modes of delivery · Model translation project · Personal experiences · More than two-thirds of people with bipolar disorder have at least one close relative with the disorder or with unipolar major depression, indicating that the disease has a genetic component. Studies seeking to identify the genetic basis of bipolar disorder indicate that susceptibility stems from multiple genes. Scientists are continuing their search for these genes using advanced genetic analytic methods and large samples of families affected by the illness. The researchers are hopeful that identification of susceptibility genes for bipolar disorder, and the brain proteins they code for, will make it possible to develop better treatments and preventive interventions targeted at the underlying illness process. Bipolar disorder is considered to be a result of complex interactions between genes and environment. The monozygotic concordance rate for the disorder is 70%. This means that if a person has the disorder, an identical twin has a 70% likelihood of having the disorder as well. These concordance rates are not universally replicated in the literature, recent studies have shown rates of around 40% for monozygotic and ). In 2003, a group of American and Canadian researchers published a paper that used gene linkage techniques to identify a mutation in the GRK3 gene as a possible cause of up to 10% of cases of bipolar disorder.

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Recent Journal of Psychiatric Research Articles - Elsevier

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Recently published articles from Journal of Psychiatric Research. Plasma C-reactive protein levels in bipolar depression during cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor combination treatment. July 2018. David Edberg. Leisure time physical activity and future psychological distress A thirteen year longitudinal population-based study. ” Alternatives to the Disease Model Approach to “Schizophrenia”. doi:10.1177/0022167817745621Allsopp, K., & Kinderman, P. A proposal to introduce formal recording of psychosocial adversities associated with mental health using ICD-10 codes. Debt Counselling for Depression in Primary Care: an adaptive randomised controlled pilot trial (De Co Der study). doi:10.3310/hta21350Kinderman, P., Allsopp, K., & Cooke, A. Responses to the Publication of the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5. doi:10.1177/0022167817698262Freeman, D., Sheaves, B., Goodwin, G. The effects of improving sleep on mental health (OASIS): a randomised controlled trial with mediation analysis. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30328-0Longden, E., Davis, P., Carroll, J., Billington, J., & Kinderman, P. An evaluation of shared reading groups for adults living with dementia: preliminary findings. M., Barsky, J., Kinderman, P., King, D., & Taylor, P. Early relationships and paranoia: Qualitative investigation of childhood experiences associated with the development of persecutory delusions. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.20Morrissey, K., Kinderman, P., Pontin, E., Tai, S., & Schwannauer, M. Examining the socio-spatial determinants of depression in the UK. doi:10.4324/9781315683621Kinderman, P., Hagan, P., King, S., Bowman, J., Chahal, J., Gan, L., . The feasibility and effectiveness of Catch It, an innovative CBT smartphone app.. doi:10.1192/115.002436Barr, B., Kinderman, P., & Whitehead, M. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013 (vol 147, pg 324, 2015). doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.20Morrissey, K., Kinderman, P., Pontin, E., Tai, S., & Schwannauer, M. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.20Berry, K., Bucci, S., Kinderman, P., Emsley, R., & Corcoran, R. An investigation of attributional style, theory of mind and executive functioning in acute paranoia and remission. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.20Kinderman, P., Mc Kenna, P., & Laws, K. doi:10.1002/pnp.365Kinderman, P., Tai, S., Pontin, E., Schwannauer, M., Jarman, I., & Lisboa, P. Causal and mediating factors for anxiety, depression and well-being. doi:10.1192/114.147553Barr, B., Kinderman, P., & Whitehead, M. Trends in mental health inequalities in England during a period of recession, austerity and welfare reform 2004 to 2013. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.20Pontin, E., Schwannauer, M., Tai, S., & Kinderman, P. A UK validation of a general measure of subjective well-being: the modified BBC subjective well-being scale (BBC-SWB). doi:10.1186/1477-7525-11-150Pontin, E., Kinderman, P., Schwannauer, M., Tai, S., & Kinderman, P. A UK validation of a general measure of subjective well-being: the modified BBC subjective well-being scale (BBC-SWB).

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Bipolar Disorder - American Psychological Association

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified, including manic episodes — abnormally elevated or irritable moods — and possibly depression. Adapted from the Encyclopedia of Psychology. Next Items. More publications on bipolar disorder. uses cookies to improve performance by remembering your session ID when you navigate from page to page. Please set your browser to accept cookies to continue. This cookie stores just a session ID; no other information is captured. Accepting the NEJM cookie is necessary to use the website.

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Psychology Information Online - Bipolar Depression

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Research studies suggest a strong genetic influence in bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout life. It is often not recognized as a psychological problem, because it is episodic. Consequently, those who have it may suffer needlessly for years without. 3 new studies on pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) highlight patterns of prodromal psychiatric symptoms that may help identify young persons at increased risk of bipolar disorder; sibling bullying and risk of psychotic disorders; and a new smartphone app that tracks moods and predicts bipolar disorder episodes." /This report includes a study on patterns of prodromal psychiatric symptoms that may help identify young persons at increased risk of bipolar disorder; sibling bullying and risk of psychotic disorders; and a new smartphone app that tracks moods and predicts bipolar disorder episodes. Transcranial direct current stimulation delivery systems differ from one another in design, action, and results. One of them has recently been shown to be significantly better than sham treatment for bipolar depression. Lamotrigine’s favorable tolerability is a welcome advance for patients with bipolar disorder. The danger it poses is at the start of treatment, when its mood-lifting effects can easily be waylaid by the eruption of a rash.

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Bipolar disorder Causes, contexts, and treatments - Leahy - 2007.

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Apr 6, 2007. This article introduces the issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology In Session devoted to the treatment of bipolar disorder. We describe the cognitive styles and personal vulnerabilities that pose greater risk for bipolar disorder. Three evidence-based psychological treatments interpersonal social rhythm. Looking for topics to write about for a depression research paper?

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Bipolar Disorder Open Access - Open Access Journals

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder Open Access discusses the latest research innovations and important developments in this field. Note: Medications are recommended as the first treatment for bipolar disorder (American Psychiatric Association, 2002), but we do not cover medications in this website. Of course, we recommend a consultation with a mental health professional for an accurate diagnosis and discussion of various treatment options. When you meet with a professional, be sure to work together to establish clear treatment goals and to monitor progress toward those goals. Feel free to print this information and take it with you to discuss your treatment plan with your therapist.

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Social and Familial Factors in the Course of Bipolar Disorder Basic.

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Jun 1, 2009. This article reviews the role of social factors, notably life events and family relationships, in the course of bipolar illness in adults and youth. The best longitudinal studies, then, examine whether a given psychological variable predicts increases in symptoms over time after controlling for baseline symptoms. Prechter Bipolar Research Fund is helping to lay the new foundation of medical research. The fund brings together national collaborators, thereby creating larger sample sizes to be made available to scientists around the world. It is increasingly apparent that a detailed longitudinal course of study is necessary to understand the underpinnings of bipolar disorder. Understanding how the interactions between individual and his/her environment result in the manifestation of bipolar disorder is pivotal to the development of novel treatment strategies. Predicting Outcomes and Preventing Disease Researchers who study bipolar disorder have discovered an important connection between genes, stresses and environmental experiences.

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Bipolar Disorder | Psychiatric Times

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Browse Bipolar disorder news, research and analysis from The Conversation. Articles on Bipolar disorder. Are creative people more prone to psychological distress or is the 'mad genius' a myth? Quincy Wong, Macquarie University. Researchers have suggested a new theory for why neurotic unhappiness and creativity. Below are short summary of our active studies for which we are recruiting participants. We are working on research in all areas of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. If you have ever experienced any of the following we may have a study for you! Compensation: Participants can receive up to $140 Contact study team for more information at 650-849-0161. For General information about Participants Rights, Contact 1-866-680-2906 What: We are conducting a study looking at the effects of the medication REMICADE (Infliximab) on currently depressed individuals with bipolar I (BPD I) or bipolar II disorder (BPD II). Who: You may qualify for this study if you are: This study will last up to 12 weeks and may earn up to $500 for their time and travel expenses. Participants have a 50% chance of receiving the study drug (Remicade) and a 50% chance of receiving a placebo. Details: We are located at 401 Quarry Rd, in Stanford, CA 94305-5401. Please call (650) 723-9392 or email veileen@if you are interested in participating in this research.

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Bipolar disorder An update for psychologists APS

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

For DSM, the bipolar disorders are diagnosed on the basis of manic symptoms of varying severity. Bipolar I disorder BD I, defined by at least one episode of mania labelled a 'mixed' episode when a depressive episode is concurrent, receives most research and clinical attention. There is growing appreciation that Bipolar. Borderline Personality Disorder is Characterized By Wild, Uncontrolled Mood Swings" title="Borderline Personality Disorder is Characterized By Wild, Uncontrolled Mood Swings" alt="Borderline Personality Disorder is Characterized By Wild, Uncontrolled Mood Swings" class="slider-6 slide-3556" / Helping Your Adolescent Become A Well-Adjusted Adult " title="Helping Your Adolescent Become a Well-Adjusted Adult" alt="Helping Your Adolescent Become a Well-Adjusted Adult" class="slider-6 slide-3555" / Optimal Class Times Vary for ‘Night Owls,’’Daytime Finches,’ and ‘Morning Larks’" title="Optimal Class Times Vary for ‘Night Owls,’ ‘Daytime Finches,’ and ‘Morning Larks’" alt="Optimal Class Times Vary for ‘Night Owls,’ ‘Daytime Finches,’ and ‘Morning Larks’" class="slider-6 slide-3557" /A few years ago, I had a delusion that I was Wonder Woman incarnate and penned these words: “I am thrilled to say that my invisible Wonder Woman cape and tights are in the Jeep (along with my faerie wings, which are... Because when we’d rather time slow down, it seems to, almost on purpose, sprint and slip away from us. Gabe Howard (Bipolar) and Michelle Hammer (Schizophrenic) talk about mental health in the current media and pop culture. Melissa Dahl’s new book, Cringeworthy: A Theory of Awkwardness, is an engaging, compelling and unique contribution to our understanding of a universal human experience that most of us would dearly ... Michelle talks about stigma and tells a story of Instagram insults. Gabe talks about being accused of not being bipolar and shares... Forgiveness requires forbidden knowledge about human nature, an understanding of the hard-to-grasp fact that we are all “motivationally innocent,” we all “mean well” from our own point-of-view. In a new study, researchers wanted to know how the specific symptoms found in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might affect teens’ new driving skills. They discovered that teens with greater […]Bariatric surgery patients have a higher probability of experiencing relationship changes post-surgery, including getting married, separating from their partner or getting divorced, according to a new study by researchers at […]A new study finds that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risker for anxiety and mood disorders.

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NIMH Bipolar Disorder

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Explore information on bipolar disorder, including signs and symptoms, treatment, current research, and clinical trials. Despite evidence that exercise has been found to be effective in the treatment of depression, it is unclear whether these data can be extrapolated to bipolar disorder. Available evidence for bipolar disorder is scant, with no existing randomized controlled trials having tested the impact of exercise on depressive, manic or hypomanic symptomatology. Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Google Scholar Faurholt-Jepsen, M., Frost, M., Vinberg, M., Christensen, E. Although exercise is often recommended in bipolar disorder, this is based on extrapolation from the unipolar literature, theory and clinical expertise and not empirical evidence. In addition, there are currently no available empirical data on program variables, with practical implications on frequency, intensity and type of exercise derived from unipolar depression studies. Antidepressant effects of exercise: evidence for an adult-neurogenesis hypothesis? The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways.

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Bipolar Disorders Across the Lifespan - NCBI - NIH

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at J Clin Psychol. For several decades, psychological research on bipolar disorder languished. The robust heritability of the disorder Vehmanen, Kaprio, & Loennqvist, 1995, coupled with the great gains provided by lithium Keller et al. 1992, led to a biological. Being a psychology student, you may find the task of choosing a topic for your psychology research paper a daunting task. Here is an extensive list of topics that you can refer to before making your final choice. The term 'psychology' is derived from a Latin word which means the study of the soul or mind. Psychology is a science based on the study of human psyche, behavior, and mental health. The field of psychology is a vast arena, with a variety of sub fields like child psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology, developmental psychology, industrial psychology, etc. The field of psychology thrives on continuous research and every course requires students to write research papers on different subjects of psychology. With psychology being such an interesting and challenging field, many students are taking it up as a career. To make a research paper interesting, it is necessary to have a good topic in hand. To become a psychologist, one has to gain a bachelor's degree and a postgraduate degree specializing in a particular field. Since psychology offers a plethora of topics, students may have a difficult time in choosing one. The most important criteria for selecting a research topic is the student's interest and area of specialization.

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The Link Between Bipolar Disorder and Anger

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Medication for Bipolar Disorder. This is information about drugs that can be used as part of the treatment of bipolar disorder. It is important to be well informed. Diniz | Ana Paula Mendes-Silva | Lucelia Barroso Silva | Laiss Bertola | Monica Costa Vieira | Jessica Diniz Ferreira | Mariana Nicolau | Giovana Bristot | Eduarda Dias da Rosa | Antonio L. Teixeira | Flavio Kapczinski Postconcussive symptoms (PCS) following combat-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Influence of TBI, PTSD, and depression on symptoms measured by the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) Katherine E. Rauch Construct validity and parent–child agreement of the six new or modified disorders included in the Spanish version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia present and Lifetime Version DSM-5 (K-SADS-PL-5) Francisco R. Generoso | Cristiano Julio Faller | Diogo Dominguini | Gustavo Antunes Mastella | Giselli Scaini | Vijayasree Vayalanellore Giridharan | Monique Michels | Drielly Florentino | Fabricia Petronilho | Gislaine Zilli Réus | Felipe Dal-Pizzol | Alexandra I. Ulloa Lutiana Roque Simões | Gustavo Sangiogo | Michael Hikaru Tashiro | Jaqueline S.

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The Heinz C. Prechter Bipolar Research Fund

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Recently published articles from Clinical Psychology Review. Intolerance of uncertainty in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder A transdiagnostic construct with implications for phenomenology and treatment. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders Implications for emotion. February. Cognition Consumer Psychology Cyber Psychology Developmental Educational Psychology Emotions Environmental Forensic Psychology Gender General Health Psychology Industrial/Organizational Judgment and Decision Mental Health Personality Positive Psychology Psychology and Religion Relationships Sensation and Perception Sexuality Social Cognition Social Psychology Below you will find links to known experiments on the internet that are psychologically related. They are organized by general topic area with the topic areas listed chronologically with the most recently added at the top.

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A Biomarker of Vulnerability to Bipolar Disorder? - SAGE Journals

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Typology of bipolar manic-depressive illness. Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 226, 65–73. Google Scholar. Ankers, D. Jones, S. H. 2009. Objective assessment of circadian activity and sleep patterns in individuals at behavioural risk of hypomania. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 1071–1086. For depressed people with bipolar disorder who are taking a mood stabilizer, adding an antidepressant medication is no more effective than a placebo (sugar pill), according to results published online in the New England Journal of Medicine. The results are part of the large-scale, multi-site Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD), a $26.8 million clinical trial funded by the National Institutes of Health's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Bipolar disorder, a sometimes debilitating illness marked by severe mood swings between depression and mania, is usually treated with mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate, carbamazepine or other medications that reduce mania. However, depression is more common than mania in bipolar disorder, and depressive episodes tend to last longer than episodes of mania. Antidepressant medications are often used in addition to a mood stabilizer for treating bipolar depression, but they are thought to confer a serious risk of a switch from a depressive episode to a manic episode.

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International Journal of Bipolar Disorders | Home page

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

Jan 2, 2018. The Psychology of Bipolar Disorder New Developments and Research Strategies Edited by Steven H. Jones & Richard P. Bentall. Oxford University Press. 2006. 256pp. US$97.50 pb. ISBN 0198530099 - Volume 192 Issue 4 - Catherine Donaldson. Bakhtiari, Hoda Shahrivar, Zahra Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi Mahmoudi Gharai, Javad and Shirazi, Elham 2017. Lurasidone compared to other atypical antipsychotic monotherapies for bipolar depression: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Cognitive Dysfunction in Euthymic Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: Is There Any Deficit in Their Visual Memory? Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 3, Bo, Qijing Mao, Zhen Li, Xianbin Wang, Zhimin Wang, Chuanyue Ma, Xin and Mc Kenna, Peter John 2017. Use of the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery (MCCB) to evaluate cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ostacher, Michael Ng-Mak, Daisy Patel, Pankaj Ntais, Dionysios Schlueter, Max and Loebel, Antony 2017. Veneziani, Federica De Blasi, Roberto Nardini, Marcello Seripa, Davide Panza, Francesco Logroscino, Giancarlo and Polidori, M. Bipolar Disorder and Frontotemporal Dementia: An Intriguing Association.

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The Psychology of Bipolar Disorder - The British Journal of Psychiatry

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

The broad reach of cognitive–behavioural perspectives has meant that there are now few disorders without a cognitive model, with body dysmorphic disorder and depersonalisation being among the most recently explicated. Bipolar disorder is an area which, as the editors of this book point out, had attracted little in the way. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness in which common emotions become intensely and often unpredictably magnified. Individuals with bipolar disorder can quickly swing from extremes of happiness, energy and clarity to sadness, fatigue and confusion. These shifts can be so devastating that individuals may choose suicide. All people with bipolar disorder have manic episodes — abnormally elevated or irritable moods that last at least a week and impair functioning.

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Frontiers A brief review of exercise, bipolar disorder, and.

Psychology Research Articles On Bipolar Disorder

The aim of the current paper is to explore the relationship between exercise and bipolar disorder and potential mechanistic pathways. USA; 7Mental Health and Wellbeing Strategic Research Centre, School of Psychology, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 8Department of Medicine, NorthWest Academic Centre. Welcome to the competence framework for psychological interventions for people with psychosis and bipolar disorder. This site gives open access to the framework, as well as background documentation that explains how to use the framework. The framework describes the various activities which need to be brought together in order to carry out effective clinical work for people with psychosis and bipolar disorder. It is not intended to prescribe what a clinician should do: it makes suggestions about best practice in the light of our current knowledge of the effectiveness of approaches and interventions. The framework locates competences across five “domains”, each of which represents a broad area of practice. This helps users to see how the various activities associated with work in this area fit together. It is important to read the background documentation, as this will help you to understand the principles underlying the construction of the framework and implement it to best effect. Although its primary audience will be clinicians, clinical managers and commissioners of services, service users will also find it useful.

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