Scientific paper 49 – An oseltamivir treatment-selected influenza A/N2 virus with a R292K mutation in the neuraminidase gene has reduced infectivity in vivo. Bird flu in humans is similar to the average influenza, so detecting it and diagnosing it can be, at times, difficult. Symptoms can be a bit more harsh than a typical flu and can sometimes lead to death in those with a weaker immune system. Like the average flu, bird flu can be passed from person to person; unfortunately, while the same medications used in the human influenza can be used to treat bird flu, the virus tends to become immune to the effects of the human influenza vaccine, making it helpless against treating the virus. There are also other varying viruses that come from the bird flu microorganism, so symptoms and the threats on life can differ between which type of virus the person has. Bird flu is a virus that is passed from system to system, whether it is by bird or human. Like all microorganisms, bird flu can be carried by means of hands, therefore being capable of being passed on by merely touching another person that has the disease. Bird flu shares many symptoms and traits to a normal flu, so it is spread in the same way. People need to be careful how they handle food, and make sure that they wash their hands after making contact with something that has had previous contact with other hands.
Nov 17, 2017. "This research paper helps fill that gap by showing how effective the influenza vaccine can be at protecting young kids against serious complications from influenza infections," adds Dr. Kwong. The researchers examined nearly 10,000 Ontario hospital records of children aged six months to under five years. A broadly protective therapeutic antibody against influenza B virus with two mechanisms of action Chai et al isolated a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes IBVs in vitro and protects mice against lethal challenge. The genetic diversity analysis of human HBV sequences was performed using the Sequence Variation Analysis (SNP) tool within IRD. Emerging highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza viruses in France during winter 2015/16: phylogenetic analyses and markers for zoonotic potential H5N1 HPAI viruses spread to Europe and to North America in 2014. Briand et al investigated the relationships between the H5 HPAI and LPAI viruses, and examined sequence variations at specific amino acid positions associated with cross-species transmission, adaptation to and virulence for humans. Molecular markers of H5 viruses were found in the Sequence Feature Variant Types component within IRD.
Nov 9, 2014. Influenza viruses are important pathogens that can cause sporadic respiratory diseases, annual epidemics and in case of influenza A virus periodic pandemics. Thus innovative and continuous research is needed in order to better understand viral pathogenesis and genomics, body's immune response to. Free essays on Biology posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only. The free Biology research paper (Influenza essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Biology, use the professional writing service offered by our company. Clinical Features of Influenza Influenza, commonly called "the flu," is caused by viruses that infect the respiratory tract. Compared with most other viral respiratory infections, such as the common cold, influenza infection often causes a more severe illness.
Estimates of the long-term annual cost of global warming lie in the range of 0.2-2% of global income. This high cost has generated widespread political concern and commitment as manifested in the Paris agreements of December, 2015. Analyses in this paper suggest that the expected annual cost of pandemic influenza. In recent past, the world was affected by the pandemic of Swine Flu in 1918, 1976, 1988, 1998, 2007 and now finally in 2009. It is also referred to as swine influenza, hog flu or pig flu, and caused by influenza virus SIV which usually contaminates pigs. The swine flu in humans has been linked mainly with stains and sub-strains of H1N1virus. In the past, the pig herds of Mexico, Midwestern United States, South America, China, Taiwan, Japan and other parts of eastern Asia have been found contaminated with swine influenza. Over the years, this disease has shown its ugly face quite a few times. The disease has varied in terms of fatalities, economic and social effects among the countries of the world. In this recent outbreak, Mexico has been the most adversely affect, with the economy reeling from the effects of an isolated tourism industry.. Sample Swine Flu Research Paper Essay Our writers can easily work on topics related to swine flu.
EPIDEMIC AND PANDEMIC. ALERT AND RESPONSE. Influenza research at the human and animal interface. Report of a WHO working group. Geneva, Switzerland. 21–22 September 2006. WHO/CDS/EPR/GIP/2006.3. Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals. The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort. Although it is often confused with other influenza-like illnesses, especially the common cold, influenza is a more severe disease than the common cold and is caused by a different type of virus. Influenza may produce nausea and vomiting, particularly in children, but these symptoms are more common in the unrelated gastroenteritis, which is sometimes called "stomach flu" or "24-hour flu". Typically, influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Influenza can also be transmitted by direct contact with bird droppings or nasal secretions, or through contact with contaminated surfaces. Airborne aerosols have been thought to cause most infections, although which means of transmission is most important is not absolutely clear. Influenza viruses can be inactivated by sunlight, disinfectants and detergents.
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Apr 21, 2013. The threat of an influenza pandemic and its potential impact on health, social and economic conditions has long been recognized by the WHO and EU. The 2004 pandemic influenza background paper from the Priority Medicines Report highlighted several priority research areas including low vaccine. van der Kuyl | Monique Vink | Fokla Zorgdrager | Margreet Bakker | Chris Wymant | Matthew Hall | Astrid Gall | François Blanquart | Ben Berkhout | Christophe Fraser | Marion Cornelissen | Shiho Torii | Yasuko Orba | Bernard M. Hall | Yuki Eshita | Takashi Abe | Hirofumi Sawa Priscila Silva Sampaio Souza | Lia Vezenfard Barbosa | Larissa Figueiredo Alves Diniz | Gabriel Soares da Silva | Bruno Rafael Pereira Lopes | Pedro Miyadaira Ribeiro Souza | Gabriela Campos de Araujo | Diogo Pessoa | Juliana de Oliveira | Fátima Pereira Souza | Karina Alves Toledo Manuel V. Anindita | Wallaya Phongphaew | Yongjin Qiu | Masahiro Kajihara | Akina Mori-Kajihara | Yoshiki Eto | Hayato Harima | Michihito Sasaki | Michael Carr | William W. Vuono | Keith Berggren | Marialexia Alfano | Lucas B. Baumert | Jens Bukh | Michael Houghton | Stanley M. Lindenbach | Volker Lohmann | Darius Moradpour | Thomas Pietschmann | Charles M. Gladue Hiroko Ejiri | Chang-Kweng Lim | Haruhiko Isawa | Ryosuke Fujita | Katsunori Murota | Tomomi Sato | Daisuke Kobayashi | Miki Kan | Masashi Hattori | Toshiya Kimura | Yukie Yamaguchi | Mutsuyo Takayama-Ito | Madoka Horiya | Guillermo Posadas-Herrera | Shohei Minami | Ryusei Kuwata | Hiroshi Shimoda | Ken Maeda | Yukie Katayama | Tetsuya Mizutani | Masayuki Saijo | Koki Kaku | Hiroto Shinomiya | Kyoko Sawabe Tanggis | Tominari Kobayashi | Masaharu Takahashi | Suljid Jirintai | Tsutomu Nishizawa | Shigeo Nagashima | Takashi Nishiyama | Satoshi Kunita | Emiko Hayama | Takeshi Tanaka | Mulyanto | Hiroaki Okamoto Ralf Bartenschlager | Thomas F.
Records were inspected for relevance individually by reading the abstract, and then the three libraries were merged into one final library and inspected again for duplication. A total of 543 records were retained, which were checked again for relevance, and only those that were influenza research papers from the WHO EMR. Children vaccinated against influenza are significantly less likely to experience serious complications from the virus that could land them in hospital, new research from Public Health Ontario (PHO) and the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) has found. , the study found that young children who were fully vaccinated against influenza saw their risk of hospitalization due to influenza infection drop by 60 per cent overall. Even for children partially vaccinated against influenza (i.e., those who received one dose of influenza vaccine during their first influenza season), risk of hospitalization due to influenza dropped by 39 per cent. "Influenza can cause serious illness, especially in young children, but there hasn't been a lot of research that has examined the magnitude of the influenza vaccine's effectiveness at preventing kids from getting really sick and being hospitalized," says Dr. "This research paper helps fill that gap by showing how effective the influenza vaccine can be at protecting young kids against serious complications from influenza infections," adds Dr. The researchers examined nearly 10,000 Ontario hospital records of children aged six months to under five years where a respiratory specimen was collected and tested for influenza; 12.8 per cent showed lab-confirmed influenza. Jeff Kwong, a scientist in Applied Immunization Research and Evaluation at PHO and a senior scientist at ICES. The scientists included four influenza seasons -- 2010-11 to 2013-14 -- and broke the data down to compare children who were fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated and those who didn't get the vaccine.
Research Paper. The non-structural NS gene segment of H9N2 influenza virus isolated from backyard poultry in Pakistan reveals strong genetic and functional similarities to the NS gene of highly pathogenic H5N1. The NS gene plays essential roles in the host-adaptation, cell-tropism, and virulence of influenza viruses. This Research Paper Influenza Flu and other 63,000 term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Review Autor: reviewessays • September 10, 2010 • Research Paper • 1,212 Words (5 Pages) • 1,108 Views Influenza, also known as "the flu," is a virus that infects the respiratory tract. Although Influenza is not as severe as many viral infections it\'s almost the worst for viral infections of the respiratory tract. Typically, when someone is infected with influenza they experience fever (usually 100o to 103o F in adults, but even higher in children) and causes a cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and also headaches, muscle aches, and usually extreme tiredness. There are sometimes other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea but usually only in rare cases with young children. One other note: The term "Stomach flu" isn't really caused by the influenza virus.
Oct 12, 2015. a mathematical model to explain the interactions between adaptive IR and IAV infection is considered. Furthermore, in this paper we propose a roadmap for future influenza research. The development of a mathematical modeling framework with a secondary bacterial coinfection, immunosenescence. In 1994 over 90 million cases of influenza was reported, not counting the ones that weren't reported. People who know that they're at high risk should be immunized. In 1941 it was discovered that influenza can be prevented and treated with a vaccine or shot...
The recently emerged H7N9 influenza virus may gain its ability to transmit from bird to human, increased virulence, and drug-resistance by mutating key amino. The authors of the paper urge health professionals to monitor the evolution of the virus and to develop strategies to combat any potential epidemic or pandemic. The CDC pledges “To base all public health decisions on the highest quality scientific data, openly and objectively derived.” But Peter Doshi argues that in the case of influenza vaccinations and their marketing, this is not so Promotion of influenza vaccines is one of the most visible and aggressive public health policies today. Twenty years ago, in 1990, 32 million doses of influenza vaccine were available in the United States. Today around 135 million doses of influenza vaccine annually enter the US market, with vaccinations administered in drug stores, supermarkets—even some drive-throughs. This enormous growth has not been fueled by popular demand but instead by a public health campaign that delivers a straightforward, who-in-their-right-mind-could-possibly-disagree message: influenza is a serious disease, we are all at risk of complications from influenza, the flu shot is virtually risk free, and vaccination saves lives. Through this lens, the lack of influenza vaccine availability for all 315 million US citizens seems to border on the unethical.
Disclaimer Free essays on Biology posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only. The free Biology research paper Influenza essay presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing. Swine Flu research paper There are many valuable web resources for researching public and community health issues or diseases. Researching some national, state, and local government health agency websites will help you become familiar with accessible information.. TOPIC swine flu Use attached worksheet for resources. Find national, state, and local governmental health agency websites that address the issue from the Article Review assignment. Document your findings Write a 700- to 1,050-word summary of your findings that includes the following: • How does the information overlap? o What type of structure do you see between levels of government? o What functions do you see at each level of government? • How would you define public and community health?
Class of 2021 and Associate Dean Candis Morello; Class of 2020 with Dean James McKerrow; Class of 2019 with Dean James McKerrow; Class of Targeting NS1directly would be an option in devising a control strategy against H5N1. These factors points towards the need for an alternative strategy to control Avian influenza for which a better understanding of the disease process is necessary. Integrating bioinformatics with gene expression data is an attractive strategy in enabling to propose new therapeutic strategies to combat avian influenza viruses in a very cost effective manner. Very many software’s are currently available in predicting mi RNA targets and each of them have different algorithms and different parameters.... [tags: bioinformatics, asian countries, vaccinations] - Unbeknownst to us, there is a residing disparity that threatens the very existence of humanity. Something that does not quite yet exist poses a threat to the continuation of human existence as we know it. An unpredictable occurrence of avian influenza (bird flu) strain is the primary concern of public health professionals and health care administrators. The peril of a potential humanized strain of avian influenza outbreak is completely uncertain partly because of the impact which the ecosystem plays in the variance of viruses and the evolutionary structure of bacteria....
Nov 20, 2017. This factsheet describes CDC's avian influenza bird flu research and its public health impact. IMAGE: Matthew Miller, senior author of the paper, an assistant professor of biochemistry and biomedical sciences at Mc Master University, and senior researcher with its Michael G. view Hamilton, ON (January 16, 2018) - While past exposure to influenza A viruses often builds immunity to similar, and sometimes different, strains of the virus, Canadian researchers are calling for more attention to exceptions to that rule. New data analysis suggests that people born at the time of the 1957 H2N2 or Asian Flu pandemic were at a higher risk of dying during the 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu pandemic as well as the resurgent H1N1 outbreak in 2013-2014. Results of the study by researchers of Mc Master University and the Université de Montréal were published today in m Bio, published by the American Society for Microbiology. "Reported situations in which previous influenza virus exposures have enhanced susceptibility are rare and poorly understood," said Matthew Miller, senior author of the paper, an assistant professor of biochemistry and biomedical sciences at Mc Master University, and senior researcher with its Michael G. De Groote Institute of Infectious Disease Research. "This study's results have important implications for pandemic risk assessment and should inform laboratory studies aimed at uncovering what's responsible for this effect." The influenza A virus continues to pose one of the most pressing threats to global public health due to its tendency to cause a pandemic. Over the last 100 years alone, at least five such pandemics have occurred, including the 1918 H1N1 Spanish Flu, the 1957 H2N2 Asian Flu, the 1968 H3N2 "Hong Kong Flu", the 1977 Russian Flu and the 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu. Miller and the teams from both universities reviewed monthly mortality and influenza circulation data from October 1997 to July 2014 in the United States and Mexico. They identified peaks in excess mortality during the 2009 H1N1 Swine Flu pandemic and during the resurgent 2013-2014 H1N1 outbreak among people born in 1952.
Dec 15, 2009. Research Paper. Bifunctional Polymeric Inhibitors of Human Influenza A Viruses. Jayanta Haldar,1 Luis Álvarez de Cienfuegos,1 Terrence M. Tumpey,2 Larisa V. Gubareva,2. Jianzhu Chen,3,5 and Alexander M. Klibanov1,4,5. Received September 9, 2009; accepted November 12, 2009; published online. The recently emerged H7N9 influenza virus may gain its ability to transmit from bird to human, increased virulence, and drug-resistance by mutating key amino acids to make structural changes in its proteins, according to a new study published in . In March, the first case of the current avian flu outbreak was confirmed in China. Since then, there have been 132 confirmed cases, including 37 deaths, according to the World Health Organization. Several influenza pandemics have occurred in the past century, including the 1918 Spanish Flu (H1N1), the pandemics of 1957 (H2N2) and 1968 (H3N2), and the swine flu pandemic of 2009 (H1N1). In Hong Kong in 1997 there was an outbreak of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1), which has since infected 622 people and killed 371 of those infected, mainly through bird-to-human transmission. In the new study, the researchers analyzed the virus causing the current outbreak in China. “We compared the available protein sequences of the four A(H7N9) strains isolated from the patients with severe pneumonia with the corresponding protein sequences of the human, avian, and swine IAVs and those causing past influenza outbreaks or pandemics. The protein sequences with mutations of critical signature amino acids or in essential functional domains were further analyzed by sequence alignment.” The genome of the H7N9 virus is similar to that of the 19 strains, but not to those viruses that caused pandemics before 1980.
Searchable database of influenza genomes with visualization and analysis tools. We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing services each and every time you place an order. We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically. Most of all, we are proud of our dedicated team, who has both the creativity and understanding of our clients' needs. Our writers always follow your instructions and bring fresh ideas to the table, which remains a huge part of success in writing an essay. We guarantee the authenticity of your paper, whether it's an essay or a dissertation.
Jan 18, 2018. Lack of human data on influenza virus aerosol shedding fuels debate over the importance of airborne transmission. J. P. P. J. B.d. M. B. A. F. L. S. E. and D. K. M. performed research; D. K. M. contributed new reagents/analytic tools; J. Y. and D. K. M. analyzed data; and J. Y. M. G. and D. K. M. wrote the paper. The majority of influenza vaccine antigens are prepared in chicken eggs. Human vaccine strains grown in eggs often possess adaptive mutations that increase viral attachment to chicken cells. Most of these adaptive mutations are in the hemagglutinin protein, which functions as a viral attachment factor. Here, we identify a hemagglutinin mutation in the current egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain that alters antigenicity. We show that ferrets and humans exposed to the current egg-adapted H3N2 vaccine strain produce antibodies that poorly neutralize H3N2 viruses that circulated during the 2016–2017 influenza season.