In the epidemiological literature, the fetal origins hypothesis associated with David J. Barker posits that chronic, degenerative conditions of adult health. , I covered the general process of plaque development, from the appearance of endogenous and exogenous pathogens, all the way up to plaque rupture and artery blockage. I studied this to truly examine the mechanisms and development of these fatty streaks and lesions that I had heard about growing up. Not to find root causes, as I had seen detailed in-depth by others (such as Ivor Cummins) over the past year, but to look at the tiniest pieces of the machine that make up atherosclerosis and truly understand how they fit together. this happens often left me in doubt or only with a vague understanding of how it allegedly works. As I continued to study foam cell formation and gained a greater understanding of the pathways for their development, I became increasingly curious as to the actual particles that contributed to foam cell formation, and the worsening of atherosclerosis. Based on the textbooks I had read and research I had done already, I knew that at least one type of “modified LDL” existed: oxidized LDL (ox LDL). However, I wasn’t quite sure the LDL particles become oxidized. One of the earlier hypotheses I had heard was that LDL somehow becomes lodged in the arterial wall and becomes oxidized as a consequence of exposure to the natural “environment” of the bloodstream.
The Adaptive Hypothesis of Bleaching. Robert W. Buddemeier, Andrew C. Baker, Daphne G. Fautin. J. Rebecca Jacobs. 24.1. Introduction. 24.1.1. Biological Background. Despite the perception that corals and coral reefs are limited to stable habitats distinguished by very narrow environmental parameters, the coral–algal. The fetal origins hypothesis (differentiated from the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, which emphasizes environmental conditions both before and immediately after birth) proposes that the period of gestation has significant impacts on the developmental health and wellbeing outcomes for an individual ranging from infancy to adulthood. The effects of fetal origin are marked by three characteristics: latency, wherein effects may not be apparent until much later in life; persistency, whereby conditions resulting from a fetal effect continue to exist for a given individual; and genetic programming, which describes the 'switching on' of a specific gene due to prenatal environment. immune to harmful environmental toxins passed from the mother via the placenta. Stemming from this belief, pregnant women of the early to mid 20th century freely drank alcohol, ingested medications, smoked cigarettes, and were largely ignorant of any nutritional needs for a developing fetus. This easy going attitude about pregnancy was challenged, however, by findings relating substances ingested by a mother to tragic outcomes for a fetus.
In mathematics, the Riemann hypothesis is a conjecture that the Riemann zeta function has its zeros only at the negative even integers and complex numbers with real. There is an epidemic of renal failure among Aborigines in the Australia's Northern Territory. The incidence is more than 1000 per million, and is doubling every three to four years. We evaluated the relationship of birthweight to renal disease in adults in one high-risk community.) was 2.712 ± 0.4 kg, and 35% had been low birthweight (LBW, less than 2.5 kg). Birthweight was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and diabetes rates, but was inversely correlated with ACR. The odds ratio for overt albuminuria in LBW persons compared with those of higher birthweights was 2.82 (CI, 1.26 to 6.31) after adjusting for other factors, and LBW contributed to an estimated 27% (CI, 3 to 45%) of the population-based prevalence of overt albuminuria.
May 1, 2007. In the early 1990s, Barker proposed the fetal origins hypothesis of adult disease, a simple but fundamental hypothesis in which the origins of diseases in adults begin in utero 1. Barker and colleagues' observations extended to the range of diseases associated with low birth weight atherosclerosis. Following Barker's observations of an association between birth size and later adult diseases, considerable efforts have been made to define the characteristics of low birth weight groups in childhood. In this review, the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics during childhood of three low birth weight groups are summarized: children born following inviter fertilization (IVF), small for gestational age (SGA), or very premature. Each of these groups is likely to have been exposed to an adverse environment at different developmental stages. The triggers and mechanisms leading to programmed changes in growth, development, and metabolism of these groups of children have yet to be identified. Epigenetics has been proposed as a potential mechanism for these programmed changes through environmentally induced changes in gene expression. Data from animal models in which environmental, particularly nutritional, manipulation leads to changes in DNA methylation are presented. The relevance of these animal studies to IVF, SGA, and very premature children are discussed as are potential candidate genes that may have undergone epigenetic modification to alter growth and metabolism. Over the past 30 y, pediatricians have focused on cognitive function, growth failure, and short stature as the principal health care issues facing children born SGA.
Jan 25, 2018. The Barker hypothesis confirmed association of low birth weight with all-cause natural deaths in young adult life in a remote Australian Aboriginal community - Wendy E. Hoy, Jennifer L. Nicol. A value such that is considered "significant" (i.e., is not simply due to chance) is known as an alpha value. The probability that a variate would assume a value greater than or equal to the observed value strictly by chance, , is known as a P-value. Depending on the type of data and conventional practices of a given field of study, a variety of different alpha values may be used. One commonly used terminology takes =5%" / as "not significant," , as "significant" (sometimes denoted *), and as "highly significant" (sometimes denoted **). Some authors use the term "almost significant" to refer to , although this practice is not recommended.
Looking for online definition of Barker hypothesis in the Medical Dictionary? Barker hypothesis explanation free. What is Barker hypothesis? Meaning of Barker. There is an epidemic of renal failure among Aborigines in the Australia's Northern Territory. The incidence is more than 1000 per million, and is doubling every three to four years. We evaluated the relationship of birthweight to renal disease in adults in one high-risk community.) was 2.712 ± 0.4 kg, and 35% had been low birthweight (LBW, less than 2.5 kg). Birthweight was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and diabetes rates, but was inversely correlated with ACR. The odds ratio for overt albuminuria in LBW persons compared with those of higher birthweights was 2.82 (CI, 1.26 to 6.31) after adjusting for other factors, and LBW contributed to an estimated 27% (CI, 3 to 45%) of the population-based prevalence of overt albuminuria. Multivariate models suggest that increasing BMI and blood pressure and decreasing birthweight act in concert to amplify the increases in ACR that accompany increasing age. LBW contributes to renal disease in this high-risk population. The association might be mediated through impaired nephrogenesis caused by intrauterine malnutrition.
Mostly based on Baker 1997 Thematic Roles and Syntactic Structure from ůĞŵĞŶƚƐ ŽĨ. 'ƌĂŵŵĂƌ͗,ĂŶĚďŽŽŬ ŝŶ 'ĞŶĞƌĂƚŝǀĞ ^ǇŶƚĂǆ. The Uniformity of Theta Assignment. Hypothesis UTAH. 1. Upon reviewing my letter before posting it, I noticed that my letter was structured in 5 clear sections. In these sections I covered five different topics so my vocabulary naturally changed as I moved on to differing topics; in other words, my letter varied stylistically as I moved on to a different subject. I was immediately reminded of the 'Documentary Source Hypothesis.' I found myself musing on the ridiculous possibility that some "higher critic" might discover my letter in 1,000 years and decide that those five sections must have been written by five different writers (possibly at five different times) because of the stylistic/vocabulary changes as I changed my topic! Sure it is, but this is exactly what some have done to parts of the Old Testament (attempts have also been made to undermine the New Testament in such a manner but far less successfully). I want to introduce our readers to a number of links/writings which expose the sadly flawed Graf/Wellhausen Documentary Source Hypothesis. Just what is this system (often known as the 'JEDP' system)?
The thrifty phenotype hypothesis says that reduced fetal growth is strongly associated with a number of chronic conditions later in life. This increased susceptibility results from adaptations made by the fetus in an environment limited in its supply of nutrients. The thrifty phenotype is a component of the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. In philosophy, egoism is the theory that one’s self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one’s own action. The descriptive (or positive) variant conceives egoism as a description of human affairs. That is, people are motivated by their own interests and desires, and they cannot be described otherwise. The normative variant proposes that people should be so motivated, regardless of what presently motivates their behavior. The term “egoism” derives from “ego,” the Latin term for “I” in English. Egoism should be distinguished from , which means a psychological overvaluation of one’s own importance, or of one’s own activities. People act for many reasons; but for whom, or what, do or should they act—for themselves, for God, or for the good of the planet?
Confirmation of the Barker Hypothesis inverse relationship of birth weight and Coronary artery disease. Fig. 1. Relation of birth weight to infant mortality and Complex Adult-Onset Disease. Although adaptations to the environment which lead to low birth weight may ultimately result in adult onset hypertension, coronary. The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System (as well as other planetary systems). It suggests that the Solar System formed from nebulous material. The theory was developed by Immanuel Kant and published in his Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels ("Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens"), published in 1755. Originally applied to the Solar System, the process of planetary system formation is now thought to be at work throughout the Universe. It offered explanations for a variety of properties of the Solar System, including the nearly circular and coplanar orbits of the planets, and their motion in the same direction as the Sun's rotation.
The Barker Hypothesis How Pediatricans Will Diagnose and Prevent Common Adult. I haven’t been able to pull out any unifying hypothesis. Baker JL, Olsen. On a Monday night (February 12th, 2018) episode of Tucker Carlson a Democrat member of the House Intelligence committee said something interesting that almost everyone missed. Appearing on the show to joust with Tucker, HPSCI member Eric Swalwell stated: “. [Video Here, quote @] This statement is rather enlightening. A month earlier, January 4th, 2018, an agreement was finally made between House Intelligence Committee Chairman Devin Nunes and DOJ Asst. Attorney General Rod Rosenstein for complete disclosure of all unredacted documents AND a list of witnesses who Nunes wanted the HPSCI to question.
Conflict of hypothesis with population data. Famine studies by. baby from so remodeling the uterine vasculature that she risks dying in labor from bleeding. Most books advocating dualism are defensive and modest in tone. They tend to admit that a scientific naturalism explains almost all reality, but plead that there are reasons for thinking it cannot cope with consciousness -- the 'hard problem'. Its view is that humanity through the ages has recognised that there is plainly something special about the dynamic inner life of the mind -- humans have souls -- and that the reasons given nowadays for abandoning this belief are tendentious, both philosophically and scientifically. Folk psychology remains central to our status as human beings, no progress has been made in giving a physicalist account of consciousness and, most striking, progress in neurology leaves us little better off than were the ancient Greeks in moving from some elementary correlations between brain and mind to positively explaining our mental life in physical terms. What is more, modern physics rejects the conservation principles that were supposed to be the scientific problem for interactionism, and quantum theory requires irreducible consciousness to endow physical reality with any determinate features. This is dualism (or mentalism) on the front foot and it is gratifying to see.
Mark Baker Rutgers University explains "The Soul Hypothesis" and comments on the relevance of scientific methodology to the study of the human soul. It was proposed by Bernhard Riemann (1859), after whom it is named. The name is also used for some closely related analogues, such as the Riemann hypothesis for curves over finite fields. The Riemann hypothesis implies results about the distribution of prime numbers. Along with suitable generalizations, some mathematicians consider it the most important unresolved problem in pure mathematics (Bombieri 2000). The Riemann hypothesis, along with Goldbach's conjecture, is part of Hilbert's eighth problem in David Hilbert's list of 23 unsolved problems; it is also one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's Millennium Prize Problems. The Riemann zeta function ζ(s) is a function whose argument s may be any complex number other than 1, and whose values are also complex. It has zeros at the negative even integers; that is, ζ(s) = 0 when s is one of −2, −4, −6, .... However, the negative even integers are not the only values for which the zeta function is zero. The Riemann hypothesis is concerned with the locations of these non-trivial zeros, and states that: where t is a real number and i is the imaginary unit. There are several nontechnical books on the Riemann hypothesis, such as Derbyshire (2003), Rockmore (2005), (Sabbagh 2003a, 2003b), du Sautoy (2003).
May 1, 2015. Barker's hypothesis inspired others to study the fetal origins of adult disorders, and aided in the development of a new area of medical research called the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, or DOHaD. Since Barker's initial discovery, many studies across the globe have found similar links. A hypothesis proposed in 1990 by the British epidemiologist David Barker (b. 1939) that intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and premature birth have a causal relationship to the origins of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes, in middle age. Barker's hypothesis derived from a historical cohort study that revealed a significant association between the occurrence of hypertension and coronary heart disease in middle age and premature birth or low birth weight. The hypothesis is not supported by evidence from low-income countries, where intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight are common but hypertension and coronary heart disease are less prevalent than in high-income countries. The evidence is presented in Barker's book Fetal and Infant Origins of Adult Disease (1992).
Mar 8, 2013. Mark Baker Rutgers University explains "The Soul Hypothesis" and comments on the relevance of scientific methodology to the study of the human soul. Epidemiological studies in Poland show that tobacco smoking by adolescents at reproductive age is still frequently observed. The study was based on all-Polish population studies of health behaviours of adolescents aged 14-24 (Youth Behavioural Polish Survey - YBPS) conducted in 2011, and the Pregnancy-related Assessment Monitoring Survey (Pr AMS). Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study. More than 12% of pregnant women do not discontinue smoking in association with becoming pregnant and expose the foetus to tobacco smoke, despite being aware of the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the mother and child. Smoking in pregnancy is mainly observed among mothers with a low education level and those aged under 23. Disruption of oxygen-regulated responses underlies pathological changes in the placentas of women who smoke or who are passively exposed to smoke during pregnancy. According to the Baker's Foetal Origins of Adult Health and Diseases Hypothesis, exposure of the foetus to the components of tobacco smoke results in many perturbations in the form of a lower birth weight, prematurity, worse state of neonates after birth, and higher susceptibility to contacting civilization diseases at the age of adulthood. Polish studies clearly confirmed a lower birth weight of babies delivered by mothers who smoke; however, earlier termination of pregnancy and worse status of neonates after birth were not observed. Bruin JE, Petre MA, Raha S, Morrison KM, Gerstein HC, Holloway AC. Horta BL, Victora CG, Menezes AM, Halpern R, Barros FC. According to the Baker's hypothesis, a lower birth weight of babies delivered by smoking mothers during the further life cycle exposes the offspring to the risk of contracting civilization diseases. Persistent nicotine treatment potentiates amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase gene in rat lung epithelial cells as a consequence of Ras activation. Fetal and neonatal nicotine exposure in Wistar rats causes progressive pancreatic mitochondrial damage and beta cell dysfunction. Low birthweight, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation in relation to maternal smoking. The efforts undertaken by public health authorities should be biased towards education of the population at reproductive age about the hazardous effect of smoking on the health of the foetus and the offspring born. Kleinsasser NH, Sassen AW, Semmler MP, Harreus UA, Licht AK, Richter E. Women at reproductive age should be encouraged to discontinue smoking in association with the planning of pregnancy and in pregnancy. Prenatal development of antioxidant enzymes in rat lung, kidney, and heart: Marked increase in immunoreactive superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in the kidney. The tobacco alkaloid nicotine demonstrates genotoxicity in human tonsillar tissue and lymphocytes. Matta SG, Balfour DJ, Benowitz NL, Boyd RT, Buccafusco JJ, Caggiula AR, Craig CR, Collins AC, Damaj MI, Donny EC, Gardiner PS, Grady SR, Heberlein U, Leonard SS, Levin ED, Lukas RJ, Markou A, Marks MJ, Mc Callum SE, Parameswaran N, Perkins KA, Picciotto MR, Quik M, Rose JE, Rothenfluh A, Schafer WR, Stolerman IP, Tyndale RF, Wehner JM, Zirger JM. Onuki M, Yokoyama K, Kimura K, Sato H, Nordin RB, Naing L, Morita Y, Sakai T, Kobayashi Y, Araki S.
To write a hypothesis, there must be a topic that needs to be researched, and therefore a scientific question must be made. The hypothesis is usually the answer to. During my college years, several of my friends and I knew an attractive coed who was Roman Catholic. She called us her “minister friends,” because we were always talking to her about the gospel. After hours of spiritual conversations, I persuaded her to read the Gospel of John. I told her that as she read, she should ask God to show her how she could have eternal life. Shortly after that she came up to me beaming and said, “I did as you said. Then we’ll try to understand how this fits with Paul’s teaching that we are saved by grace through faith alone, apart from our works. it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment.” That verse refutes reincarnation.
Here I argue that androdioecy, a rare breeding system in which males co-occur with hermaphrodites, may evolve in a metapopulation under the joint action of local mate competition and Baker's Law if rates of self-fertilisation decrease with increasing population size. The hypothesis makes several predictions regarding. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required.
Barker et al have proposed that intrauterine malnutrition, marked by low birthweight LBW, predisposes individuals to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease in adult life. Although a variety of renal abnormalities, including tubular disorders, nephrolithiasis, and cortical echogenicity, have. The title page provides the first impression for your audience of your proposal. Your title must be complete and it should provide the focus of your investigation. Be sure that the title gives a glimpse of the nature of the proposed investigation and includes the key ideas. Word choice and syntax are so precise in a research proposal title that some researchers create the titles for their projects last in the proposal writing process. They do this so that they can be as precise as possible in their wording and sentence structure in order to best represent their investigation.
Hunter A. Mcallister, Jeffrey D. Baker, Catherine Mannes, Heather Stewart, Amy Sutherland 2002. The Optimal Margin of Illusion Hypothesis Evidence from the Self-serving Bias and Personality Disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology Vol. 21, August, pp. 414-426. https//doi.org/10.1521/jscp.21.4.414.22593. Believe it or not, I had no idea what funfetti was until about seven years ago. Once I started to read food blogs, I discovered this phenomenon, which is basically a boxed white or yellow cake with flecks of rainbow colors baked right in. Not surprisingly, these cakes, cupcakes and cookies are extremely popular with kids and a lot of people have fond memories of enjoying them at childhood birthday parties. I probably missed this whole trend for a variety of reasons: (1) my mom always ordered our birthday cakes from the same bakery, year after year; (2) I was never a fan of cakes, so once I was old enough to realize there were options outside of traditional birthday cakes, I started requesting ice cream cakes and cheesecakes for my birthday; (3) I don’t remember my mom ever baking a cake from a box mix. Maybe she did and I just don’t remember it, but I don’t think they were really on her radar, either. I can see why the funfetti concept is so popular – who doesn’t love bright colors and sprinkles?! Once the cupcakes were baked and cooled, I topped them with my favorite vanilla buttercream frosting and more sprinkles, of course.