FOR DESTROYING THE HAMITIC MYTH. 235. Seligman also attempted to prove the hypothesis that sue- ces"ive waves of Hamites had scattered ali through Jhe Nilotic area and East Africa. He attèmpted to trace their'' influence, not only through comparisons of their physical type with that of pre-dynastie Egyptlans, but. This content is available through Read Online (Free) program, which relies on page scans. Topics: African Americans, White people, African history, African American culture, Slavery, Theology, African culture, Language, Descendants, Linguistic typology The anthropological and historical literature dealing with Africa abounds with references to a people called the 'Hamites'. Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. 'Hamite', as used in these writings, designates an African population supposedly distinguished by its race-Caucasian-and its language family, from the Negro inhabitants of the rest of Africa below the Sahara. There exists a widely held belief in the Western world that everything of value ever found in Africa was brought there by these Hamites, a people inherently superior to the native populations. This belief, often referred to as the Hamitic hypothesis, is a convenient explanation for all the signs of civilization found in Black Africa. It was these Caucasoids, we read, who taught the Negro how to manufacture iron and who were so politically sophisticated that they organized the conquered territories into highly complex states with themselves as the ruling elites. This hypothesis was preceded by another elaborate Hamitic theory. The earlier theory, which gained currency in the sixteenth century, was that the Hamites were black savages, 'natural slaves'-and Negroes. This identification of the Hamite with the Negro, a view which persisted throughout the eighteenth century, served as a rationale for slavery, using Biblical interpretations in support of its tenets.
Eagle Specialty Products, Inc. 2011 Catalog. Released November 2010. 160105w Kd jnz SV Ro dZ zm 114932uw e67852E 264653dw hw Sacrifice as Terror is witnessed from an anthropologist's perspective. Taylor, attempts to find reasoning for such a horrible consequence of genocide. He struggles to interpret the meaning of terror in another cultures eyes. What grounds could lead a culture to the genocide of another, especially two that are so relatively close? Taylor challenges this question by writing on his experiences during his two-year visit to (1993-1994) Rwanda. It is something that the Jews, Gypsies, and Bosnians have experienced. The author introduces the book by telling his personal experiences in efforts to share the terror that he encountered. After the introduction, in a non-biased fashion, Taylor is trying to capture and explain the concept of mass violence. The atrocities that took place during the Rwandan genocide showed how sacrifice and terror are culturally defined. This topic is appropriate because it helps gain insight of conflict within culture.
Define Hamitic Myth. Hamitic Myth synonyms, Hamitic Myth pronunciation, Hamitic Myth translation, English dictionary definition of Hamitic Myth. adj. Of or relating to the Hamites or their languages or cultures. No longer in technical use. n. A presumed language family thought to include Egyptian and. On a second expedition to Egypt, Lepsius discovered the Canopus Decree, with inscriptions similar to the Rosetta Stone, which be used to decipher hieroglyphs and to prove a connection between African and Among these are several distinct tribal groups: the Kababish of northern Kordofan, a camel-raising people; the Ja(tm)alin and Shaigiyya groups of settled tribes along the rivers; the semi-nomadic Baggara of Kordofan and Darfur; the Low Little to none Nilotic High With Eastern Bantu Pygmoid Very High 0 Little to none * Europoid Features = the degree to which researchers believed that the tribal people within a language group exhibited Caucasian-like characteristic (height, head shape, skin color, etc.
Hamitic hypothesis thus evolved the so-called “Hamitic hypothesis,” by which it was generally supposed that any progress and development among agricultural blacks was the result of conquest or infiltration by pastoralists from northern or northeastern Africa. Specifically, it was supposed that many of the ideas and. , being put out by the Australian filmmaker, Alex Proyas, is due to feature an all-white cast. Proyas is well known for directing films such as The Crow (1994), Dark City (1998), I, Robot (2004), and Knowing (2009). But the dark over tones of his movies are the only thing slated to be dark in . Even the Egyptian deity Ra is slated to be played by the Danish actor Nikolaj Coster-Waldau, famous for his role on the Game of Thrones. A petition by Thorne Studios on called this “a whitewashing of World History.” The blunt westernization of African gods displayed here is without a doubt, shameless in its own right, and will not be accepted nor tolerated. This is an element of storytelling that has gone on for far too long, and must be put to rest as timely as possible. I try to imagine a reality in which Roman Gods are portrayed as Chinese, but my mind just simply won’t allow it.”Such casting is little different than the minstrel shows of a century ago. What’s so hard about hiring people of African descent to play African characters?
Printed in Great Britain. THE HAMITIC HYPOTHESIS; ITS ORIGIN. AND FUNCTIONS IN TIME PERSPECTIVE1. BY EDITH R. SANDERS. THE Hamitic hypothesis is well-known to students of Afr that everything of value ever found in Africa was brought. Hamites, allegedly a branch of the Caucasian race. Seligman as follows. This paper explores the use of versions of the “Hamitic hypothesis” by West African historians, with principal reference to amateur scholars rather than to academic historiography. Although some reference is made to other areas, the main focus is on the Yoruba, of southwestern Nigeria, among whom an exceptionally prolific literature of local history developed from the 1880s onwards. Ibn Khaldun later commented that “this Salih is not known among the descendants of 'Abd Allah b. The most important and influential work in this tradition, which is therefore central to the argument of this paper, is the In a later formulation, Fage abandoned the hypothesis of the Egyptian origins of African kingship, but still posited a critical role for conquering Saharan pastoralists in the process of state-formation in the Sahel: Strictly, the classic “curse of Ham” represented the conflation of two stories which were originally distinct: the Biblical story of a curse condemning the descendants of Canaan to slavery, and the post-Biblical story of a curse of blackness on the descendants of Ham collectively: for this development, see ibid., 170-74. al-Hasan:” ibid., 320., accepting the identification of “Bayajidda” with the historical Abu Yazid (see note 31 above), supposed that remnants of his army might have fled south into West Africa, following his defeat and death in Tunisia. Goldenberg finds the origin of this “dual curse” in Christian and Islamic (but not, initially, Jewish) sources from the seventh century onwards, or even more specifically (ibid., 170) “in seventh-century Arabia.” However, the earliest source explicitly cited is of the eighth century. Ibid., 9; for other claims that Yoruba traditions contained “garbled forms of scriptural stories,” explained as “showing that the ancestors of the Yorubas were acquainted with Christianity in their land of origin,” cf. This connection is confessedly “inferred,” since Johnson nowhere explicitly cites Ellis. The Fulani were variously supposed to descend from Persians or Carthaginians, or even to have immigrated from Malaya. But in any case, the argument of Ellis that Johnson supposedly sought to refute was not the “Hamitic hypothesis,” but rather his “evolutionist” interpretation of Yoruba religion. Note, however, the alternative suggestion that the Fulani were descendants of Put (or Phut), son of Ham, on the basis of the Fulani toponym “Futa,” apparently first in As explicitly asserted in the conclusion of his book: ibid., 0. The former does indeed posit “large immigrations of white people into Africa,” producing a partly “mulatto” population in much of West Africa, including Yorubaland (pp. I am fortified in this reading of Frobenius by the fact that this is clearly how the significance of his work was seen by the pioneer Afro-American historian, , referring to Salih b. 267-69, 276-80), but although he stresses the “somewhat civilized” character of the Yoruba, he does not relate this explicitly to the supposed admixture of “white” blood; while the latter work likewise hypothesizes a “stream of immigration from the lands nearer Arabia,” but explicitly regards the Yoruba as “a race of pagans” displaced by this immigration, rather than deriving from it (1). In any case, here again, Johnson does not cite (or show any evidence of acquaintance with) either of these works.
The Hamitic Hypothesis was born, and in it the Hamites were now white people! At different times they were seen as an invading race that taught the blacks that existed in Egypt everything they knew, and at others they were a miraculously indigenous white race that was the mother of Egyptian civilization! The core of this. , which first led scholars to date rock carvings of cattle to the predynastic period, on the grounds that modern pastoralists in North-east Africa are living remnants of a racial substratum that preceded the emergence of Egyptian civilisation.
Hamitic definition, especially formerly the non-Semitic branches of the Afroasiatic language family. See more. Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Culture / The Hamitic Race (7278 Views) The Black Race Is Unintelligent. / Ile-ife - The Cradle Of Yoruba Race, Fact, Myth And Belief / Do You Believe In Hamitic Theory? (1) (2) (3) (4) In the 19th century, as an application of scientific racism, Europeans classified the "Hamitic race" as a sub-group of the Caucasian race, alongside the Semitic race, grouping the non-Semitic populations native to North Africa, the Horn of Africa and South Arabia, including the Ancient Egyptians. Seligman, it asserted that all significant achievements in African history were the work of "Hamites" who migrated into central Africa as pastoralists, bringing technologies and civilizing skills with them. According to their Hamitic theory, this "Hamitic race" was superior to or more advanced than Negroid populations of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the early twentieth century, theoretical models of Hamitic languages and of Hamitic races were intertwined."Apart from relatively late Semitic influence..civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history is the record of these peoples and of their interaction with the two other African stocks, the Negro and the Bushmen, whether this influence was exerted by highly civilized Egyptians or by such wider pastoralists as are represented at the present day by the Beja and Somali.... The incoming Hamites were pastoral 'Europeans' - arriving wave after wave - better armed as well as quicker witted than the dark agricultural Negroes."The “Hamitic race” was regarded as being composed of all those native speakers of Afro-Asiatic languages (at the time called Hamito-Semitic languages) who were not Semitic. The Semitic languages area is shown in orange on this map. The other languages shown were collectively called the “Hamitic languages”. Sometimes other groups were regarded as “Hamitic” as well, as discussed in the article.
He also reveals his fondness of the Christian based portions of the Hamitic Hypothesis, in stating his “empathy” towards Negroid races, he opines, “I accounted for their cruel destiny in being the slaves of all menby the common order of nature, they, being the weakest, had to succumb to their superiors, the Japhetic and. Either view of the matter will serve one in immediate need of an hypothesis. Every one must admit, I think, that what Tolstoi has said of the hypothesis of the play is justified. A term in logic; narrower scientific sense is from 1640s. "a placing under," from hypo- "under" (see sub-) thesis "a placing, proposition" (see thesis). hypothesis "base, basis of an argument, supposition," lit. And the construction of any hypothesis whatever is the work of the imagination. Of the correctness of this hypothesis it is unnecessary to speak. No hypothesis he could form even remotely approached an explanation.
The Hamitic hypothesis reached its apogee in the work of C. G. Seligman, who argued in his book The Races of Africa 1930 that Many people have fallen prey to Eurocentric pseudo-academic babble by continually using the word Hamite to describe what I assume in a modern context, they mean to be African/ African descended or mixed African peoples. The idea of the Hamite developed initially from the Hebrew biblical myth of the origins of humankind; what they called the Table of Nations. In it the sons of Noah were said to form the different people that occupied the earth after the flood. Many different cultures have used the metaphor of an original family peopling the earth to explain their origins. But this is merely allegorical and not to be taken literally. However, to justify the enslavement of the Canaanites and the seizing of their lands by the Jews it was injected into the Hebrew story that the children of Ham were cursed with slavery and were forever destined to serve their brothers, Shem and Japheth.
May 15, 2007. In those years, according to Hamitic myth see. Sanders 1969 people identified as. by claiming that culturally more creative Hamitic pastoralists had conquered and imposed the rudiments of a more. The Hamitic hypothesis Its origin and functions in time perspective. Journal of. African History, 104. The terms "Hamite" and "half-Hamite" was used by Seligman to describe the phenotype of millions of Africans--for Seligman the Bantus were "half-Hamites" who did not conform to the silly stereotype of "true negro". Seligman's race theory was that a caucasoid race whom he called Hamite invaded Africa millenia ago and mixed to varying degrees with the indigenous "negroes"(silly term). It was these mixtures with this mysterious Caucasoid race that Seligman appealed to to explain whatever impressive civilisations and high cultures that existed in Africa. It also explained the phenotypes of the Hiernaux's "elongated Africans" and those who lived in the drier savannah regions. Seligman's theory, of course, has been long discredited. There was never any "Hamitic race" that invaded Africa.
Third, treating the 'Hamitic Hypothesis' as a unique Rwandan phenomenon runs the risk of ignoring comparative case studies which can foster a more thorough understanding of the country's particular path to violence. To advance these arguments, the essay will proceed in the following manner. First, it will discuss theories. This paper explores the use of versions of the "Hamitic hypothesis" by West African historians, with principal reference to amateur scholars rather than to academic historiography. Although some reference is made to other areas, the main focus is on the Yoruba, of southwestern Nigeria, among whom an exceptionally prolific literature of local history developed from the 1880s onwards. In the historiography of Africa, it has conventionally been employed as a label for the view that important elements in the cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, and more especially elaborated [End Page 293] state structures, were the creation of people called "Hamites," who were presumed to be immigrants/invaders from outside, often specifically from Egypt or the upper Nile valley, and racially Caucasian (or "white"), who conquered the indigenous black African populations. One of the most influential proponents of this interpretation was C. Seligman, in a book originally published in 1930, which was reprinted down to the 1960s, and still formed part of the background reading of the earliest generation of academic historians of Africa (including myself). Seligman declared baldly that "the civilisations of Africa are the civilisations of Hamites," and that these Hamites were "European" (i.e., racially "white") pastoralists, who were able to conquer the indigenous agriculturalists because they were not only "better armed" (with iron weapons, which they are suggested to have introduced into sub-Saharan Africa), but also supposedly "quicker witted." The idea thus incorporated an explicit assumption of "white" racial superiority, and denied historical creativity to black Africans by attributing their cultural achievements to the impact of outsiders. Although the overt racism of the "Hamitic hypothesis" was repudiated by the academic historiography of Africa which developed from the 1950s, the model of state formation through invasion and/or cultural influences from outside continued to exercise a powerful influence. The early works of the pioneer historians John Fage and Roland Oliver in the 1960s and 1970s, for example, continued to posit diffusion of the institution of "divine kingship" from Egypt to the rest of Africa, and the formation of the earliest states in the West African Sahel through the conquest of the indigenous (black) agricultural peoples by Saharan (white) pastoralists—the military superiority of the latter being now attributed to their possession of horses, rather than (or as well as) iron technology. A more recent reflection of such views is the interpretation of Dierk Lange, who posits the pervasive influence of "Canaanite-Israelite" models of cosmology and political organization in several areas of western Africa, including Yorubaland.
Africa.1 As Edith Sanders 1969 explains, while tracing the origins of this particular Western myth “the Hamitic hypothesis is well-known to students of Africa. It states that everything of value ever found in Africa was brought there by the Hamites, allegedly a branch of the Caucasian race.” However, she further explains. Seligman's work in the Sudan, conducted together with his wife, led to many publications and much interest in the people and races of Africa. Influential in academic circles, he was responsible for the shift in focus of British anthropology from Pacific to African cultures. Although his thesis concerning the races of Africa was erroneous, the detailed descriptions provide a valuable source of information for the study of human history, and drew attention to Africa as significant regarding the origins of humankind. Charles Gabriel Seligman was born in London, England, the only child of Hermann Seligmann and Olivia Mendez da Costa. Thomas' Hospital in London, earning his medical qualification in 1896 at the age of 23. In the same year he received the Bristowe medal in pathology, after which he practiced as a pathologist for several years.
This paper explores the use of versions of the "Hamitic hypothesis" by. West African historians, with principal reference to amateur scholars rather than to academic historiography. Although some reference is made to other areas, the main focus is on the Yoruba, of southwestern Nigeria, among whom an exceptionally. This paper whose Abstract appears below presents the effect of the Hamitic Hypothesis on the self definition of the Igbo and other people groups within the colonial defined boundaries of Nigeria, The professional Nigerian nationalist historiography which emerged in reaction against the imperialist Hamitic Hypothesis – the assertion that Africa’s history had been made only by foreigners – is rooted in a complex West African tradition of critical dialogue with European ideas. From the mid-nineteenth century, western-educated Africans have re-worked European ideas into distinctive Hamitic Hypotheses suited to their colonial location. This account developed within the constraints set by changing European and African-American ideas about West African origins and the evolving character of the Nigerian intelligentsia. West Africans first identified themselves not as victims of Hamitic invasion but as the degenerate heirs of classical civilizations, to establish their potential to create a modern, Christian society. At the turn of the century various authors argued for past development within West Africa rather than mere degeneration. Edward Blyden appropriated African-American thought to posit a distinct racial history. Lucas and Ladipo Solanke built on both arguments, but as race science declined they again invoked universal historical patterns. Samuel Johnson elaborated on Yoruba traditions of a golden age. Facing the arrival of Nigeria as a nation-state, later writers such as S. Biobaku developed these ideas to argue that Hamitic invasions had created Nigeria’s proto-national culture. In the heightened identity politics of the 1950s, local historians adopted Hamites to compete for historical primacy among Nigerian communities.
Define Hamitic hypothesis. Hamitic hypothesis synonyms, Hamitic hypothesis pronunciation, Hamitic hypothesis translation, English dictionary definition of Hamitic hypothesis. adj. Of or relating to the Hamites or their languages or cultures. No longer in technical use. n. A presumed language family thought to include. Hamites (from the biblical Ham) is a historical term in ethnology and linguistics for a division of the Caucasian race and the group of related languages these populations spoke. The appellation Hamitic was applied to the Berber, Cushitic and Egyptian branches of the Afroasiatic language family, which, together with the Semitic branch, was thus formerly labelled "Hamito-Semitic". However, since the three Hamitic branches have not been shown to form an exclusive (monophyletic) phylogenetic unit of their own, separate from other Afroasiatic languages, linguists no longer use the term in this sense. Each of these branches is instead now regarded as an independent subgroup of the larger Afroasiatic family. Beginning in the 19th century, scholars generally classified the Hamitic race as a subgroup of the Caucasian race, along with the Semitic race – thus grouping the non-Semitic populations native to North Africa and the Horn of Africa, including the Ancient Egyptians. Seligman, this theory asserted that virtually all significant achievements in African history were the work of "Hamites" who had migrated into central Africa as pastoralists, bringing new customs, languages, technologies and administrative skills with them. According to the Hamitic theory, this "Hamitic race" was superior to or more advanced than Negroid populations of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the early 20th century, theoretical models of Hamitic languages and of Hamitic races were intertwined. The term Hamitic originally referred to the peoples said to be descended from Ham, one of the Sons of Noah according to the Bible. According to the Book of Genesis, after Noah became drunk and Ham dishonored his father, upon awakening Noah pronounced a curse on Ham's youngest son, Canaan, stating that his offspring would be the "servants of servants".
While the truth may be a combination of these two theories, one thing remains clear Scientific Racism and the Hamitic Hypothesis formed a continuous line of discrimination against the African and worked together to construct a negative Negro stereotype. While both schools of thought can be placed in two different periods. When the enormous monoliths were unearthed from Mexico, the sculptured images that were carved to form a 24-foot ton head from a single mass of basalt rock had been discovered. No one suspected this mysterious part of a civilization that only seems to have vanished. At the cultural paradox of this civilization – La Venta, eighteen miles from the Gulf of Mexico, four colossal heads were unearthed. The results of carbon 14 testing of the stone heads found in Mexico caused a startling uproar amongst the archeological circles. Various additional testing were performed, however the earliest date that carbon 14 testing came up with regarding the stone images was the year 291 B. As more diggings were performed in Middle America, larger heads were discovered (24 tons – average sum of the weight). The new discoveries were even more mysterious for the colossal heads continued to turn up even earlier dates. Four heads in all were excavated at the city of La Venta with the largest head standing nine feet tall. The monoliths of La Venta was dated and placed in the Archaic period which proved the existence of a civilization in Meso-America thousands of years before organized monotheistic religions. Ancient Middle America civilization or ‘Meso-America’ antiquity is divided into three epochs: Archaic (before Christ), Classic (during the first thousands years A. Perhaps more staggering than the result of the carbon dating of these stone figures is the apparent construction and proportions of the monoliths. According to archeological circles, the statues were constructed from one massive chunk of basalt block mined from stone quarries eighty miles away and transported to the center of La Venta with a sum weight of 20 to 40 tons each.
In the 19th century, as an application of scientific racism, Europeans classified the "Hamitic race" as a sub-group of the Caucasian race, alongside the Semitic race, grouping the non-Semitic populations native to North Africa, the Horn of Africa and South Arabia, including the Ancient Egyptians. According to their Hamitic. Fw-300 #ya-qn-sort h2 /* Breadcrumb */ #ya-question-breadcrumb #ya-question-breadcrumb i #ya-question-breadcrumb a #bc .ya-q-full-text, .ya-q-text #ya-question-detail h1 html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] .ya-q-full-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] .ya-q-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] .ya-q-full-text, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] .ya-q-text html[lang="zh-Hant-TW"] #ya-question-detail h1, html[lang="zh-Hant-HK"] #ya-question-detail h1 #Stencil . Bdend-1g /* Trending Now */ /* Center Rail */ #ya-center-rail .profile-banner-default .ya-ba-title #Stencil . Bgc-lgr #ya-best-answer, #ya-qpage-msg, #ya-question-detail, li.ya-other-answer .tupwrap .comment-text /* Right Rail */ #Stencil . Bxsh-003-prpl #yai-q-answer, #ya-trending, #ya-related-questions h2. Fw-300 .qstn-title #ya-trending-questions-show-more, #ya-related-questions-show-more #ya-trending-questions-more, #ya-related-questions-more /* DMROS */ .
The Hamitic hypothesis, which served to explain the evolution of African cultures in ancient times, has been widely used as a palpable interpretative framework 1. According to this theory, the “Hamites” were an African people distinct from the other blacks of sub-Saharan Africa from the standpoint of race Caucasian and. The Multiple Hypothesis Tracking algorithm, proposed by Donald Reid in 1979, is considered by some the preferred algorithm for difficult tracking situations. However, its implementation is far from trivial, which is a major drawback of the algorithm. Implementations of the MHT with 40K lines have been reported. The MHL is an API for a generic multiple hypothesis library. We provide an implementation of the library: the Lisbon implementation. To demonstrate the MHL functionality and to help users learning the library, we provide an example application of a radar simulator.
The Hamitic hypothesis reached its apogee in the work of C. G. Seligman, who argued in his book The Races of Africa 1930 that Apart from relatively late Semitic influence. the civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history is the record of these peoples and of their interaction with the two other African. This paper whose Abstract appears below presents the effect of the Hamitic Hypothesis on the self definition of the Igbo and other people groups within the colonial defined boundaries of Nigeria, The professional Nigerian nationalist historiography which emerged in reaction against the imperialist Hamitic Hypothesis – the assertion that Africa’s history had been made only by foreigners – is rooted in a complex West African tradition of critical dialogue with European ideas. From the mid-nineteenth century, western-educated Africans have re-worked European ideas into distinctive Hamitic Hypotheses suited to their colonial location. This account developed within the constraints set by changing European and African-American ideas about West African origins and the evolving character of the Nigerian intelligentsia. West Africans first identified themselves not as victims of Hamitic invasion but as the degenerate heirs of classical civilizations, to establish their potential to create a modern, Christian society. At the turn of the century various authors argued for past development within West Africa rather than mere degeneration.
This article addresses the outside origin hypothesis that suggests the Igbo have a Jewish origin. WORKS BY SELIGMANSUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHYCharles Gabriel Seligman (1873–1940) was one of that remarkable group of young biological scientists (among them, W. Her influence on their joint work was important: while Seligman himself had, for example, little interest in the minutiae of kinship custom, his wife, under the influence and instruction of Rivers, became adept in this branch of anthropology and took the responsibility for it. It was only after this expedition that he finally committed himself to anthropology by accepting the first lectureship in ethnology (in 1913 it became the chair of ethnology) established at the University of London. Salaman, who collaborated in all his later field research and in many of his major publications. On returning to England in 1899, he resumed his medical research until, in 1903, he met a wealthy American businessman, Major Cooke Daniels, and persuaded him to finance the expedition to New Guinea that resulted, inter alia, in The Melane-sians of British New Guinea (1910). At first Seligman confined himself to medical investigations, but his colleagues soon drew him into their anthropometric and ethnological studies. Seligman’s research broke ground for Malinowski’s field work in Melanesia between 19 and for Evans-Pritchard’s work in the Sudan twenty years later. Originally trained as a physician, he had embarked on research in medicine when, in 1898, he learned of Haddon’s plans for the Cambridge Expedition to the Torres Strait and volunteered to join it. Haddon’s inspiration, established scientific field work as the basis of professional anthropology in Great Britain during the first quarter of the twentieth century. The Seligmans carried out a series of officially sponsored expeditions, to Ceylon in 1907–1908 to study the Veddas (see 1911) and their first expedition to the Sudan in 1909–1910. They made two further trips to the Sudan in 1911–19–1922.